OK guys, I will start by saying that I have never mentored on line before, hence, It will be a little more difficult for me than tutoring students face to face. Second, as you know, I am not a professional teacher, nor a professional painter or illustrator - yet. This means you are welcome, I should even say it’s your duty, to question everything we’ll be discussing here, we all will benefit from this.
One more thing, my english is ok but I’m not a native speaker, feel free to correct my mistakes or ignore them.
Having that said ....
Welcome to my Perspective Mentoring thread otherwise known as....
HELLLLLLL!!!!! just kidding.
Basic Principles of Perspective.
Spatial awareness - I don’t have a scientific name for this one so I made this up. What it basically means is always being aware the viewer’s location in the scene. In order to produce a correct perspective sketch you have to decide the viewer’s standing point (distance from buildings) the height of the eye (this determines the horizon line) and the direction of my line of sight (perpendicular to a certain surface or parallel to it).In my head- I always have the Image of the environment I’m painting in ‘top’ view. I recommend you to do a small sketch - a plan of the environment (including the viewer’s location) before you start drawing. This will also give you the understanding about which lines are parallel to each other so you’d know how to deal with it.
Horizon line - The location of the horizon line in the picture is determined by the height of the viewer’s eyes. That means if you place it really low - you’ll be looking at the scene from ant’s point of view. Place it close to the frame’s top and you’ll get a feeling you are flying above the scene. Of course, when you shift the horizon’s height the appearance of the whole scene changes and not just the line itself. That’s because the horizon line is where the vanishing points located. I’ll get to it next. Here’s an example:
One important thing to understand, think about the line of horizon as a section (side view) of a plane parallel to the ground and located above it as hight as the viewers eyes. Wherever the horizon intersects a tree or a building it intersects all of them in the same height (as long as they are all located on the same surface). Illustration:
Vanishing point - This is an Important one: All lines which are parallel in reality, will meet in one vanishing point, which is located on the horizon line. Here’s a picture of a road to illustrate this. The two white lines are parallel in reality and that’s why the go to the same vanishing point on the horizon.
Let’s say we’d like to add a building next to this road. some lines on this building will be parallel to the white lines, hence, will go to same vanishing point as the white ones.
Sight cone - Humans are not flies. we don’t see 180 degrees. Our cone of sight is approximately 35 degrees in diameter. That is something to take into consideration when thinking how much of the environment can co inside our frame. Following the rules of perspective we can get away with painting much more than 35 degrees but don’t stretch it too much. A panoramic view with only one or two vanishing points will look skewed.
ONE and TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE.
Remember I said it is important to be aware of the viewers line of sight direction? Well imagine that you stand in front of a large cube (building). If your line of sight is perpendicular to the direction of one of his faces (parallel to the other) , this face won’t be affected (skewed) = the edges that surround this face don’t go to the vanishing point. Only the faces that are parallel to the viewers line of sight will be skewed to the vanishing point. This case is called ONE point perspective (we need only one point) or FRONTAL perspective (half of the faces are facing us directly) The other common cases is the TWO POINT perspective. This is used when the viewer is looking at the cube from a corner (neither face is parallel or perpendicular to our line of sight) In this case we will need two vanishing points, because we have two groups of edges parallel to each other, each group with its own vanishing point.
IMPORTANT: The vertical lines are not effected by the perspective in ONE and TWO point perspectives. They change their length (depending on distance from viewer) but always stay vertical!
I could go much longer about the rules but I hope we will polish those rules through the exercises.
I'd like you to produce a single point perspective. Start with simple cube practicing and maybe get to the interior of a room with simple angular objects in it. Don't mess with round and organic shapes for the time being.
Please follow the principles. Determine the horizon line and vanishing point. Add a little plan of the room with the viewers location and line of sight. you can use the ruler but don't erase the guidelines, I'd like to see the process. We won't deal with composition yet but try to make it a nice image as well and somewhat challenging for you.
The next Illustration by Robert. S. Oliver explains pretty well all the above principles regarding the ONE point perspective.
Always, First determine the horizon line (viewers hight)
Here are some Inspirational images of one point persp.
From R.S. Oliver's 'The Complete Sketch', I'm especially fond of his style.
Ones you know your perspective, even the quickest sketch is enough to portray the idea.
Three more of Oliver's two make things clearer about one point persp.
I understand that perspective is complicated to begin with. So don't be shy to post questions and I will do my best to clarify the issue.
Also feel free to post works other than the exercises to get some perspective critique.
I'll try to comment as much as I can but large posts like this one do take a lot of time so I'll need more time to work on them.
IMPORTANT : Comment on each other's works. Not for each others sake, but for your own. Being able to see that something is not right with a picture and better yet to see what it is - is a very good practice.
Initially I thought that we should just practice copying different parts of body to better understand it. However, I've noticed that you do it in your sketchbooks, and hopefully will continue doing, regardless to this mentoring session, plus, you don't need me for doing that. I have noticed that you guys (and me) have more difficulties when it comes to painting people without references. So how 'bout we'll try some poses without references?
You can and should use references for various body parts but I'd like you to compose the pose yourself and not copy it.
Man bending over to pick up a coin from the floor. Front view and side view.
(You are welcome to offer other methods of anatomy practice if you have ideas)
As said, you can post your anatomy paintings, other than the exercises to get crits from me and each other.
I think this will do for the first post. there's no due date for the exercises, It's basically until I will see that the basic knowledge is absorbed or until I have time to edit the next lesson. Let's roll!