Thinking and reading about it a few years ago, if I recall correctly, my list of differences included...
...little or no sight size in 19th C French, atelier training,
...much less emphasis on the perfection of charcoal figure backgrounds,
...little or no still life training,
...little or no cast painting,
...more emphasis on design of compositions leading to monthly/quarterly or semiannual competitions
... shorter extended poses ( but perhaps more of them?),
...no Bargue drawings. (These were done in local art schools before you reached the ateliers.)