1. ## Assignment 8: Shadow Construction

This thread is for my mentees to post their work. If you're not one of my mentees but want to show your practice on these exercises or have questions, please check the Lurkers thread or general discussion thread.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Alright time to move on to the next topic: shadows and shadow construction. This assignment will handle how to find out what the shadow of an object looks like and how to construct it in a quick and easy way.

The theory behind shadow construction is actually pretty simple and can be explained solely by the example below. Any shadow construction of a more complex form works in the same way, but of course there are tricks, shortcuts and pitfalls when it comes to drawing the shadows. I'll explain the most important ones further up in this assignment.

One note on beforehand, this assignment will deal with pretty basic settings. No difficult lighting schemes with multiple lights, nothing fancy on fading out and bounce light etc. For that sort of thing I suggest you do some study from life. This assignment deals with the very basis of shadow construction and how to get an effective shadow in a quick way.

Once again, a step by step on how to get a nice and controlled shadow. We take a simple example to start with: a vertical pole (or stick or line - check the schematic version below the actual pole).

Step 1: Start out by drawing the actual stick or fencepole or whatever you like that looks somewhat like the example above.

Step 2: Now, introduce a lightsource. In this case, pick a spotlight (meaning, a single point in space that emits light in all directions). Notice that by drawing only the lightsource there are still a lot of possibilities left open on where the bulb actually is in respect to our fencepost.

Step 3: To determine where the lightbuld is, draw a vertical line to the ground and a line through where the vertical hits the ground and through the base of the fencepost. This can be anywhere you want, in this case I chose one that'll give a nice shadow on the ground. Play around with it if you like to find out what works and what doesn't. The line on the ground is called the 'projected light direction', as it shows on the floorplane the direction of your lighting. The vertical is to show how high the lightsource is in respect to your product.

Step 4: Now add the lightbeams that hit the top and bottom of the fencepost. The bottom one in this case isn't really necessary, but comes in handy if the post was actually floating.

Step 5: Where the lightbeam the hit the top of the post crosses the projected lightdirection is where the shadow ends. I added the thickness of the shadow already as the fencepost isn't a real one dimensional thing in space but has shape and thickness as well. For clarity you might want to check out the example below it.

For the rest of the examples in this assignment, keep the lower construction of the above example in mind. The next one uses it in basically the same way, only now it is two of those fenceposts connected with each other so the whole forms a plane (I made it a fence out of wooden planks ).

Step 1: As with the fencepost, start out with drawing the actual object first. Whatever you want to make of it, keep it a simple plane like the lower case above.

Step 2: Again, introduce a lightsource.

Step 3: As with the fencepost, determine where you want your lightsource to be. In this case I opted for it to be in the center front of the plane, but you might want to play around with this a bit more.

Step 4: Draw in the projected light direction and the lightbeams the pass trought the topcorners of the plane. Connect the two points you find in this way (the two points where the lightbeams cross the projected light direction).

Step 5: Marker in the shadow. As you see, I did make it fade out a bit the further away it is from the object. You can try to do this with markering it already, but since we haven't really gone into markering techniques yet you can also try it with either a white or a black pencil.

So far, we've only used point lights. While they give a decent shadow, they also have certain drawbacks that can be avoided. The most important drawback is the fact that the shadow is always a bit warped with respect to its origine, because the projected light direction diverges from its source. This both makes the shadow look exagarated and larger than needed (in the examples above the shadow is almost as big as the actual object). The problems I just mentioned can be countered somewhat by placing the lightsource further away from the object or by putting it higher from the ground, but the best solution is to use parellel lightbeams (meaning, placing the lightsource an infinite distance away - basically sunlight )

In the example above, the first one on the left is point light while the second on the right uses a light source with parallel light beams. As you can see, the second one looks less messy and doesn't distract as much from the actual object as the first one. You no longer need to determine a lightsource and where it exactly is in respect to the object, all you need to choose is the angle of the light and the direction of the projected light direction. Again, this decision is up to you.

In all of the following examples I'll be using the parallel light beams to construct the shadow, as it saves some work and marker inkt. Now that we've had simple sticks and planes, let's try a 3 dimensional shape. The cube is a nice subject for this

Step 1: Nothing new, draw a cube to begin with. Note that I already played a bit with linewheight by making the lines which touch the ground a bit heavier.

Step 2: You can wait with this step until you marker the shadow as well, but as there's something to say about it already I put this step in second place. Why do we put shading on one side of the cube? The reason is that although you could opt for a light setting where each of the sides get an even amount of light, this doesn't help explain the shape. It's better to get as much difference in the different sides of an object as possible, as it will convey the shape stronger and makes it more readable for the viewer. Therefor, its best to have one side with shade. The little top view of the situation (image 2a) shows how the lighting works; the lower corner is closest to the eye while the light comes from 'over your shoulder').

Step 3: This step is basically four times the fencepost example: draw in the projected light direction for all four corners of the cube. Chose a direction the fits with the shading, in my example that is the light comes from the left.

Step 4: Now add the actual light direction on all the four corners of the top plane of the cube. It might be handy to mark where these lines cross the projected line direction as especially with complex objects it'll get messy real quick if you don't.

Step 5: Connect the dots and marker the shadow

Step 6: This is actually not a separate step, but an observation on the shadow you have drawn for the cube. If done well, you should see that the line AB of the shadow corresponds to the same vanishing point of line ab of the cube (they are parallel in perspective). The same goes for line BC of the shadow, which corresponds to the 2nd vanishing point of line cb of the cube. This is an important observation, as it allows you to draw the shadow much quicker: you don't even need to draw the actual light direction any more, you can go straight ahead and draw AB and CB by choosing their distance from the sides of the cube. Note that the projected light direction is the projection of the vertical ribs of the cube much like the fencepost example.

Okay, the next step is a floating cube. In essence, this isn't much different as you apply the same technique.

Step 1: Start out with the cube again. By now you should be able to get it more or less cube-like Note that the cube in step 1 can be either floating, hanging from a wall or standing firmly on the ground. As long as there is no cast shadow, this will remain unclear.

Step 2: For the cube to float, we need to know how high it actually is from the ground. To do so, extend the vertical ribs downwards like in the example. You can chose whatever height you want, but the higher you let the cube float the further away the shadow on the floor will be.

Step 3: The next steps are quite similar to what I showed earlier: add the projected light direction and the real light direction. Only this time, use the points on the ground rather then the real corners of the cube.

Step 4: The result in this step is a shadow of the top of the cube. Still missing are the sides and bottom...

Step 5: Repeat step 3 for the bottom surface of the cube. Note that you can use the same lines for the projected light direction as you already used for the top. Now that you have constructed the shadow of the top and bottom surface, the only thing left is to connect the two to make it a shadow of a solid object.

Step 6: Marker the shadow. It might be usefull to compare the shadow of the earlier example with the cube firmly on the ground with this one.

Again, you end up with a lot of construction for a 'simple' shadow. Later on I'll put up some quick and dirty example that give you the same effect with less work

The next example is about shadows on other objects. Having a nice open floor to put your object on is nice and easy, but often you'll have more complex shapes where the object has cast shadows not only on flat surfaces but also on vertical surfaces like walls.

Basically, step 1 to 3 are nothing different than what is shown in the earlier examples. However, a wall is added so that the shadow will partly fall on the wall instead of only the floor. Step 3 ends with the shadowconstuction as if the two objects are separate drawings.

Step 4: Mark where the projected light direction hits the wall. This is where the shadow stops being on the ground and start to go up on the wall. Since we're dealing with a vertical stick, the shadow on the wall will logically be vertical too.

Step 5: To determine where the shadow ends on the wall you need the light direction as already drawn in step 3. Draw a vertical line from the mark you put down in the previous step and go up until you cross the light direction.

Sticks are easy, now we try the same with a cube.

Note that I deliberately put the wall at an angle to the cube, so that the wall isn't parallel to the side of the cube. Feel free to try this yourself, but it's the easier version of the example above (also, I'm aware the wall seems slightly curved. Too lazy to fix it since it doesn't influence the construction for now )

Again, the first couple of steps are nothing new so I'll skip these.

Step 5: This is where it gets interesting. As you can see, I use the same technique as with the stick to find the top of shadow of the rib at the back of the cube on the wall.

Step 6 Connect the dots that make up the shadow and give it a marker tone and you're done.

The next examples are for you to try out. As you might have noticed, shadow construction is actually quite simple. However, it's easy to get lost in your own constructions.

The four objects shown above all have their own nasty tricks to confuse you, which is why I will not do them for you. The theory as explained above still applies to all of them, so you should be able to construct the shadows by now.

1: A box on the wall. Make sure the shadow of it falls partly on the wall and on partly the ground. Making it an open box is optional.

2: A hollow box with a given light direction. You can vary the direction a bit, as long as all the dark sides of the box are at the back of the box.

3: Same story as 2, only with a different light direction.

4: Two objects, where the cast shadow of the first falls on the box behind it.

Now that you are able to construct a shadow for (at least) basic objects, it's time to make things a bit easier again. You might have noticed that to construct the shadow precisely, you need an aweful amount of lines and constructions that clutter up your drawing. As shown with the cube example, you don't really need all the construction lines. The following image shows a very useful trick that does not only apply for just this cube, but for most shadows you'll have to draw.

The red line of the shadow has the same vanishing points as the corresponding red lines from the cube, the same counts for the green one. This is because they are both a projection of the 'horizontal' ribs of the cube. They also should have the same length as the lines they are the projection off (unless you're using a spotlight, but lets not go there for now). The only line that needs some thinking is line AB; this is the projected light direction as mentioned earlier. Choose this wise and your shadow stays simple

About that 'chosing your light wisely': here's another example. It shows three different light situations, each with their own uses and pitfalls.

Situation 1: This one is often preferable above the other two. The reason is that by adding the shade on the right side of the object, you immediately make it more readable. At first glance the shape already reads like the tetris-block it is Note the little cast shadow behind the cube on top.

Situation 2: By shading the other side of the shape, it becomes a little less clear already. Instead of one solid shaded side, the shade is broken up in basically two squares. Again, note the cast shadow on the object itself. For some drawings this shading might be prefferable, but for most of the drawings you will make in this mentor course it's better to use situation 1, as this conveys more information.

Situation 3: Though a combination of 1 and 2 might sound cool, it often is the least useful of the three shown here. Though it is possible to differentiate the shade on the sides (left sides are a bit darker than the front) it doesn't read as well as situation 1 or even 2, as it tends to look like a solid block most of the times. Then again, when handled well this could work to give a drawing something more dramatic by using a backlight and rimlighting.

There are a couple more variations as you might guess, but the important point in most industrial design sketches is to quickly convey as shape/design without having to spend too much time on it. Also, when presenting tons of ideas at one time it is usefull if they all read quickly and easily

To conclude this assignment, below are some example of what shadows can do to your object. Note that all those shadows are 'guessed'; no construction was used, just the same knowledge as in the above exercises.

1: Simple, you've already seen this above.

2: Now, by lifting the shape up a bit, suddenly the shadow is visibly at the front too. This really works well for small hand held products, but also for larger objects (check out some pictures for cars, they usually have a shadow like this underneath ). Important to watch for is the fact that the shadow on both sides should be different in width: the shadow up front is much thinner than on the side. If you make those the same width, the drawing becomes dull.

3: Analyse this one for a bit. By simply twisting the swadow a bit, the object suddenly stands at an angle to the floor. Note that the shape of the shadow doesn't change, except that it becomes a bit shorter (or longer, depending on where you put the light).

4: This is a more dramatic shadow, much like it would look if you place a spot right above your object. I must admit I never use this one myself, as it is a bit too far out there, but some designers like it. Note that there's still only one side of the object that gets shade, so the form still reads easily. Also, by diffusing the corners of the shadow at the left and the right you can create a reflection in the shadow. We'll get to reflections later on.

That's it for this assignment, I'm working on the next one already.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last edited by yoitisi; May 6th, 2008 at 05:43 PM.

2. Placeholder post for emergencies...

Edit: Several issues have been pointed out already, I'm going over the above piece of text one more time in the next couple of days to correct stuff
Last edited by yoitisi; March 26th, 2008 at 06:50 PM.

3. Happy to see that a new assignment is up.

4. im in an art draught - but i'll be getting this one underway, and since this thread is a bit dead, i just wanted to say again to yoitisi how grateful i am for the time hes spent on all of this. infinite thanks

5. I'm trying these exercises out, up until now it looks fairly simple; but the pause from pen exercises made my straight line worse.

Also, like Legato said, Yoitisi deserves infinite thanks.

6. I'm still here but it's easiest for me to remember everything and understand the big picture if I block out a whole day and do it all at once. I'm glad to see how many of us are hanging in there. This is a pretty successful mentoring group and we're being shown a ton of stuff. Thanks.

7. You guys are embarrasing me into working on the rest of the assignment

I've finished some more step-by-steps, but haven't got time to upload and write about it as I'm off for the german sketchmeet this weekend. I will focus on getting this assignment fully done right after that, I promise

8. That sounds great, hope you have lots of fun at the sketch meet !

9. you guys should try and do every lesson every day, or even just draw boxes for 20 minutes - practice getting confidence in your lines, being able to make a box in 2 pt in say.. 9 lines without having to go over them. I'm not there yet, but im tryin :-D

10. That's a good practice, jdeegz. I'll try to do them daily, but I'm more preoccupied with figure drawing that I always forgot to do these practices.

11. Right, I finally added some to the assignments. I'll try to keep it more regular from now on

12. I think it's a busy time for everyone but I'm sure I speak for everyone when I say that we really appreciate the effort you're putting in for us.

14. Some practices before real starting. Actually my feeling of drawing straight lines is disappearing... gotta pay more attention with the submitted one.

15. ok, my assignments are done, and ill post them tomorrow after my camera batteries charge!

16. lame lack of large scanner aside, sorry yet again for the photographs - i tried my best to correct for the lens distortion.

the far right shadow is not correct at all, if i have time i'll fix it, but i got confused with where the angled shadow would land on the two faces. also the upper left is off - so i corrected it with the simpler shadowed version below it. i should have used the second lines i gave it, but oh well. last but not least, i accidently shaded in the cut out shadow in the rear of the first hollow cube /o\

17. I still haven't done all of them, but I feel that I'll need the answer to the latest exercises.

18. Good to see some work coming in, although I see there are a couple of common mistakes here and there. I'll have to reread my explanation and check if it is unclear on those spots

Arttorney: When markering a shadow, marker it completely. By introducing lines in it you make the drawing more complex, and if the object gets more complicated it makes it harder to read. Also, note that the shadow side of an object and the cast shadow of that object have relation: If the shadow falls towards the viewer, both sides of the cube might need to have a shadow.

Enrigo, Legato: Several things seem to go down pretty well, but the exercise with the two objects together and the box on the wall have a few funny things. I'm not at home right now, but I'll try to do a paintover/example drawing of it later on. In the meantime, try them again yourself

Unsharpened: The scans are a bit small Take care not to mix up your light direction and perspective too much, it makes you drawing less readable and harder to get right.

19. Legato: Humm... these are sweet to me. Love your markers, I hope that I can present the same quality as you did.
OK, time for getting to work now.

20. Opps, finally got updated though it has been two days later.

21. ## Studies

Some studies of the first excercises - everything seems to makesense with this...

Edit 05/07/08 - updated with a new pieces.

Edit 05/15/08 - updated with a new pieces.
Last edited by D-Holme; May 15th, 2008 at 12:49 PM.

22. Thanks Yoitisi. I'll probably go back to pencil shading because of those crappy little markers I have. I'll be doing the final puzzles in a day or two and I will go back to look at my shadows.

I am seeing the applications of this stuff you have been teaching all over the place in things I draw. I was penciling a table and chair in perspective this morning, and because of this mentoring it occurred to me to make sure the two objects seemed lined up with common vanishing points and also to make the table top shoot toward vanishing points instead of being a pure parallelogram. You seem to be making a difference.

23. Unsharpened: Looks like you've got the essence of it Line quality and shapes are looking good too. A couple of minor things: the shadow of the cube on the wall didn't really work because you put the wall too far away from the cube. You spotted it in the first one, but made the same mistake in the second one. Also, the box on the wall looks a bit forced (I'll make an example of it myself which I'll put up later I think). Overall, good work.

D-Holme: Yep the first couple shouldn't be too hard to do. On with the next You might want to keep practicing your linework too though, it still looks a bit sloppy here and there.

Arttorney: Maybe marker refill is an option, but otherwise the pencil is always a good second. Glad to hear this mentoring is helping somewhere. There is some more to say on the subject of everyday objects like tables, we'll get to that in the next assignment.

So, I should invest some serious time in this mentor thingy again My schedule has been pretty irregular these last weeks, so making examples and writing it was hard to plan. I'm planning to have the next assignment up next weekend, so please make sure you have posted your work on this one before that. I'll also put up some additional information on shadows, but the next assignment will do to practice that

24. Confused. Still says more to come on the top post.
Is there more or not?

25. Asmodie: Yeah a little more, it's basically information though. Not really part of this assignment, just usefull stuff for the next assignment Working on it...
Last edited by yoitisi; May 5th, 2008 at 11:24 AM.

26. Originally Posted by yoitisi
Unsharpened: Looks like you've got the essence of it Line quality and shapes are looking good too. A couple of minor things: the shadow of the cube on the wall didn't really work because you put the wall too far away from the cube. You spotted it in the first one, but made the same mistake in the second one. Also, the box on the wall looks a bit forced (I'll make an example of it myself which I'll put up later I think). Overall, good work.
Actually I got annoyed after attempting second try, I guess that it's my laziness caught me again. Thanks for checking. BTW, I have to say that I am gradually figuring out those line quality stuff from being mentored here. Really appreciate that.

27. Unsharpened: Glad this mentorthingy gets you anywhere

Okay, I added the last part of this assignments. It's just something for you to take a look at and note, as it will become usefull in the next assignment. I'm already working on it, and hopefully will be able to put it up next week somewhere. For now, I'll put the deadline for this assignment on:

28. Some more up.

Yoitisi - thanks for the comments I'll work on my shakey lines.

29. D-Holme: It already looks better in that last one but yes, keep working on it. Also, the observation on line a and b in your first floating cube is good: they should be about the same size (a is a tiny bit smaller because of perspective). As you might have found, constructing sometimes can go wrong with a lot of tiny mistakes as lines become slightly curved etc. The build up of those mistakes can cause surprising results if you follow your own construction to literally. Overall though, the work looks good

30. Here's my shot at the trick questions.

#### Posting Permissions

• You may not post new threads
• You may not post replies
• You may not post attachments
• You may not edit your posts
•