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I made a drawing mainly with colored pencil but I especially like to smoothen the overal appeal of the picture in Photoshop. Here you see a small part of the drawing and as you see it is kind of ´grainy´. Anyone has an idea how to improve this in Photoshop and keep the sharp parts sharp at the same time?
Honestly, the way to improve a pencil drawing in Photoshop is not to blur it. The texture is part of the process, so embrace it. If it's so grainy that you don't have the detail that you want, then try drawing on a larger canvas, or try drawing on smoother paper (like hot-press illustration board).
The best way to improve a colored pencil drawing is to use mixed media, like watercolor/acrylic and colored pencil. The idea is that you do not want to have the white of the paper show through in your illustration, which I'm guessing is part of the reason why you want to blur it. Unfortunately I'm only aware of the process and have never actually done it myself, but every illustration I've seen that was done professionally using colored pencil was ALWAYS mixed media.
So maybe that's an approach you can take with Photoshop. Start with the colored pencil to get most of your drawing down, paint over it using a multiply layer to fill in the paper color, and paint solid over areas you want lighter.