Glossary of Art Terminology

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    Glossary of Art Terminology

    I'm posting this thread because at present it seems that CA lacks a definitive list of art terminology and I believe it could do a lot of less experienced young artists a lot of good to be able to have a quick reference to look back to when they are given advice and critiques as relating to their artwork, but just aren't familiar yet with the associated jargon. Each separate post will be a different letter in the alphabet, just for easy reference. This is the first post, so all terms will be under the letter A, the 10th post will contain terms under the letter J, and so on like that. Easy huh?

    I don't have time to list all letters in one go, so I'll be doing a little now and a little later and I am pulling these terms from different locations so that people who are confused about discrepancies in meanings can cross reference them for better understanding. The two websites I'm primarily pulling from are

    Rex Art was kind enough to supply their entire list of art terminology.

    And Arlex Technologies is allowing use of terms from their Glossary of Fine Art Terms

    Currently a glossary of art terminology does exist on this site, but to me it doesn't seem completely relevant as a quick reference to modern art jargon because as the thread title suggests it is more a study of the history of the terms, and is by no means complete ALTHOUGH it is a great read for learning a little about art history and I suggest you read it if you are serious about becoming familiar with the meanings of some of the terms used in art today. That thread can be found here and if you are interested in helping make that list more comprehensive this website is a good place to find histories of words in the English language

    With the links posted I'm satisfied for the moment. I have contacted site administration at both websites and after receiving their permission to post the information listed on their websites here I will go through and begin making a comprehensive list of terms for reference.

    Nick

    Edit: I have obtained permission from both websites to use their definitions here for quick reference. Big thanks to them. Thanks to their cooperation I can now begin populating this thread with the necessary information. Again, this list is not complete, and when I have time I will be sorting through other sources to try to build a more complete list, but I encourage all users who have information they would like added to this thread to contact me via P.M. with the definition and if you found the definition online, the source of the definition and I'll be glad to add it to the list to help make it more complete.

    A

    ABSORBENT GROUND
    A chalk ground which absorbs oil and is used in oil painting to achieve a matt effect and to speed up drying.

    ACRYLIC EMULSION
    A water dispersion of polymers or co-polymers of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or acrylonitrile. Acrylic emulsions dry by evaporation of the water and film coalescence.


    ACRYLIC SOLUTION
    A solution of acrylic resin in a volatile solvent. Paints made with an acrylic solution binder resemble oil paints more than those made with acrylic emulsion binders.


    ADDITIVE COLOR
    color that results from the mixture of two or more colored lights, the visual blending of separate spots of transmitted colored light.


    ALKYD
    Synthetic resin used in paints and mediums. As a medium Liquin from Winsor and Newton works as a binder that encapsulates the pigment and speeds the drying time. In Paints W&N Griffith paints are good example of alkyd paints.


    ALLA PRIMA
    Technique in which the final surface of a painting is completed in one sitting, without under painting. Italian for "at the first".


    ANHYDROUS
    Free from water.


    ARCHIVAL
    Refers to materials that meet certain criteria for permanence such as lignin-free, pH neutral, alkaline-buffered, stable in light, etc.

    ASTM
    The American Society for Testing and Materials. An independent standard for certain paint qualities, adopted by most manufacturers.

    Last edited by Sepulverture; November 30th, 2009 at 09:30 AM.
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    B
    BINDER
    The nonvolatile adhesive liquid portion of a paint that attaches pigment particles and the paint film as a whole to the support.

    BISTRE
    A brown, transparent pigment.


    BLEEDING
    In artwork, the effect of a dark color seeping through a lighter color to the surface.

    BLENDING
    Smoothing the edges of two colors together so that they have a smooth gradation where they meet.


    BLOOM
    A dull, progressively opaque, white effect caused on varnished surfaces by damp conditions.


    BODY COLOR
    Opaque paint, such as gouache, which has the covering power to obliterate underlying color.

    BRUSHWORK
    The characteristic way each artist brushes paint onto a support.

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    C
    CANVAS
    Closely woven cloth used as a support for paintings.


    CARTOON
    Other than what we watch on TV it is a planning device in mural painting, often a full-scale line drawing of the design, without color and tone.

    CASEIN
    A natural protein obtained from cow's milk. Produces a flat, water-resistant film.


    CHIAROSCURO
    Term is used to describe the effect of light and shade in a painting or drawing, especially where strong tonal contrasts are used.

    CROSSHATCHING
    More than one set of close parallel lines that crisscross each other at angles, to model and indicate tone.

    CHROMA
    The relative intensity or purity of a hue when compared to grayness or lack of hue.


    COCKLING
    Wrinkling or puckering in paper supports, caused by applying washes onto a flimsy or improperly stretched surface.


    COLLAGE
    A technique of picture making in which the artist uses materials other than the traditional paint, such as cut paper, wood, sand, and so on.

    COMPOSITION
    The arrangement of elements by an artist in a painting or drawing.


    CO-POLYMERS
    A polymer in which the molecule is of more than one type of structural unit.


    COPAL
    A hard resin used in making varnishes and painting mediums.

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    D
    DAMAR
    A resin from conifer trees, used in making oil mediums and varnishes.


    DEAD COLOR
    A term for colors used in underpainting.

    DECKLE EDGE
    The ragged edge found on handmade papers.

    DECOUPAGE
    The act of cutting out paper designs and applying them to a surface to make an all over collage.


    DESIGNER COLORS
    Best quality Gouache paints, often used in commercial art.


    DILUENTS
    Liquids, such as turpentine, used to dilute oil paint, the diluent for waterbased media is water.

    DISPERSION
    Applied to paint, a smooth, homogeneous mixture of ingredients; the process of dispersal, in which pigment particles are evenly distributed throughout the vehicle.

    DISTEMPER
    A blend of glue, chalk and water-based paint, used mostly for murals and posters.


    DRIER
    A material that accelerates or initiates the drying of an oil paint or oil by promoting oxidation.


    DRYING OIL
    An oil that, when spread into a thin layer and exposed to air, absorbs oxygen and converts into a tough film.

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    E
    EMULSION
    A liquid in which small droplets of one liquid are immiscible in, but thoroughly and evenly dispersed throughout, a second liquid. eg. Acrylic Emulsion


    ENCAUSTIC
    Literally, to burn in. A painting technique in which the binder is melted wax

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    F
    FAT
    A term used to describe paints which have a high oil content.


    FILLER
    Inert pigment added to paint to increase its bulk, also called extender.


    FILM
    A thin coating or layer of paint, ink, etc.


    FIXATIVE
    A solution, usually of shellac and alcohol, sprayed onto drawings, to prevent their smudging or crumbling off the support.

    FRESCO
    A painting technique in which the pigments are dispersed in plain water and applied to a damp plaster wall. The wall becomes the binder, as well as the support.


    FUGITIVE COLORS
    Pigment or dye colors that fade when exposed to light.

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    G
    GESSO
    A white ground material for preparing rigid supports for painting. made of a mixture of chalk, white pigment, and glue. Same name applied to acrylic bound chalk and pigment used on flexible supports as well as rigid.


    GLAZE
    A very thin, transparent colored paint applied over a previously painted surface to alter the appearance and color of the surface.


    GOUACHE
    Opaque watercolors used for illustrations.


    GRISSAILLE
    A monochromatic painting, usually in gray, which can be used under colored glazes.


    GROUND
    coating material, usually white, applied to a support to make it ready for painting.


    GUM
    A plant substance that is soluble in water.


    GUM ARABIC
    A gum, extracted fro Acacia trees, used in solution as a medium for watercolor paints.

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    H
    HATCHING
    A technique of modeling, indicating tone and suggesting light and shade in drawing or tempera panting, using closely set parallel line.

    HUE
    The perceived color of an object, identified by a common name such as red, orange, blue.


    HYGROSCOPIC
    Absorbing or attracting moisture from the air.

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    I
    IMPASTO
    A style of painting characterized by thick, juicy color application.


    IMPRIMATURA
    A thin, veil of paint, or paint-tinted size, applied to a ground to lessen the ground's absorbency or to tint the ground to a middle value.

    INTENSITY
    The purity and brightness of a color. Also called saturation.

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    J

    This section has no definitions, and needs updating! Any contributions are appreciated!

    Last edited by Sepulverture; November 30th, 2009 at 09:09 AM.
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    K
    KEY
    Used to describe the prevailing tone of a painting. A predominantly light painting is said to have a high key. In contemporary mural painting, the key is the result of scratching a walls surface to prepare for final layer of plaster - similar to "tooth"

    Last edited by Sepulverture; November 30th, 2009 at 09:08 AM.
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    L
    LAKE
    A dye that has been chemically or electrically attached to a particle and does not bleed or migrate.


    LATEX
    A dispersion in water of a solid polymeric material.


    LEACHING
    The process of drawing out excess liquid through a porous substance.


    LEAN
    Used as an adjective to describe paint thinned with a spirit, which therefore has a low oil content.


    LEVIGATING
    A method of water-washing pulverized pigments to clear the particles of dissolved salts or organic matter.


    LIGHTFAST
    Resistant to fading or other changes due to light.


    LOCAL COLOR
    The actual color of an object or surface, unaffected by shadow coloring, light quality or other factors.


    LOOM STATE
    Canvas that has not been primed, sized or otherwise prepared beforehand for painting.


    LATEX
    A dispersion in water of a solid polymeric material.

    Last edited by Sepulverture; November 30th, 2009 at 09:07 AM.
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    M
    MATIERE
    Paint.


    MAROUFLAGE
    A technique for attaching, with glue, mural size painting on paper or fabric to a wall.


    MASSTONE
    The top tone or body color of a paint seen only by reflected light.


    MAT
    A stiff cardboard with a window cut out of the center, attached to a backboard.


    MATTE
    Flat, nonglossy; having a dull surface appearance. Variant spelling - matt.


    MEDIUM
    The liquid in which pigments are suspended. Also a material chosen by the artist for working. Plural is media.

    MIGRATION
    The action of a pigment or dye moving through a dried film above or below it.


    MIXED MEDIA
    In drawing and painting this refers to the use of different media in the same picture.


    MONOMER
    A material with low molecular weight that can react with similar or dissimilar materials to form a polymer.


    MOSAIC
    Picture making technique using small units of variously colored materials (glass, tile, stone) set in a mortar.


    MURAL
    Also referred to as wall painting. this word describes any painting made directly on the wall.


    MUSEUM BOARD
    Multi ply board made of cotton rags or buffered cellulose to ensure chemical stability and neutrality.

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    N

    This section needs definitions.

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    O

    This section needs definitions.

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    P
    PALETTE
    The surface which a painter will mix his colors. Also the range of colors used by an artist.


    PATINA
    Originally the green brown encrustation on bronze, this now includes the natural effects of age or exposure on a surface.

    PENTIMENTO
    A condition of old paintings where lead-containing pigments have become more transparent over time, revealing earlier layers.


    PIGMENTS
    particles with inherent color that can be mixed with adhesive binders to form paint.


    PLASTICIZER
    Ingredients added to paint to either make it flow or be easily redissolved.


    PLEIN AIR
    French for "open air". Term describing paintings done outside directly from the subject.


    POLYMER
    A series of monomers strung together in a repeating chainlike form.

    PRECIPITATE
    An inert particle to which dyes can be laked.


    PRESERVATIVE
    A material that prevents or inhibits the growth of microorganisms in organic mixtures.


    PRIMER
    Coating material, usually white, applied to a support to prepare it for painting.


    PVA
    Polyvinyl acetate, a manmade resin used as a paint medium and in varnish.

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  34. #17
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    Q

    This section is in need of definitions.

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    R
    REFRACTION
    The bending of light from one course in one medium to a different course through another medium of different refractive index.

    REFRACTIVE INDEX
    The numerical ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a substance.

    RESINS
    A general term for a wide variety of more or less transparent, fusible materials. The term is used to designate any polymer that is a basic material for paints and plastics.

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    S
    SANQUINE
    A red-brown chalk.


    SAPONIFICATION
    The process in which a paint binder, under moist and alkaline conditions, becomes transparent or discolored.

    SCUMBLING
    The technique of applying a thin, semi-opaque or translucent coating of paint over a previously painted surface to alter the color or appearance of the surface without totally obscuring it.


    SECCO
    Italian for "dry". A technique of wall-painting onto dry plaster, or lime plaster that is dampened shortly before paint is applied


    SFUMATO
    Italian for "shaded off". Gradual, almost imperceptible transitions of color from light to dark.


    SGRAFFITO
    Technique in which the surface layer is incised or cut away to reveal a contrasting color.


    SHADE
    Term for a color darkened with black.


    SHELLAC
    A yellow resin formed from secretions of the LAC insect, used in making varnish.


    SILICATE
    Material, such as sand, that is composed of a metal, oxygen, and silicon.


    SILVERPOINT
    A drawing method using a piece of metal, usually silver wire, drawn on a ground prepared with Chinese white, sometimes with pigment added.


    SINOPIA
    A red-brown chalk used for marking-out frescoes; also the preliminary drawing itself.

    SIZE
    Material applied to a surface as a penetrating sealer, to alter or lessen its absorbency and isolate it from subsequent coatings.


    SKETCH
    A preliminary drawing of a composition.


    SQUARING UP
    A method for transferring an image to a larger or smaller format.


    STRAINER
    A wooden chassis for textile supports that has rigid, immovable corners.

    STRETCHER
    A wooden chassis for textile supports that has expandable corners.


    SUBTRACTIVE COLOR
    Color resulting from the absorption of light. Return to top


    STUDY
    A detailed drawing or painting made of one or more parts of a final composition, but not the whole work.


    SUPPORT
    The basic substrata of the painting; paper, cotton, linen, wall, etc..

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    T
    TEMPERA
    Technique of painting in which water and egg yolk or whole egg and oil mixture form the binder for the paint. Used also as a term for cheap opaque paints used in schools.

    THIXOTROPIC
    Referring to materials that are thick and viscous while at rest but will flow if brushed, stirred, or shaken. Resumes its viscous state when the agitation stops.


    TINT
    Term for a color lightened with white. Also, in a mixture of colors, the tint is the dominant color.


    TONER
    An unlaked dye that can bleed or migrate through dried paint films.


    TOOTH
    Small grained but even texture. Tooth provides for the attachment of succeeding layers of paint.


    TRACTION
    In oils, the movement of one paint layer over another.

    TRAGACANTH
    A gum , extracted from certain Astragalus plants, used as a binding agent in watercolor paints and pastels.

    TROMPE L'OEIL
    French for "deceive the eye". A painting with extreme naturalistic details, aiming to persuade the viewer that they are looking at an actual object, not a representation.

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    U
    UNDERPAINTING
    The traditional stage in oil painting of using a monochrome or dead color as a base for composition. Also known as laying in.

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    V
    VALUE
    The relative lightness or darkness of a hue. Black is low value. White is a high value.


    VARNISH
    Generally, a more or less transparent film-forming liquid that dries into a solid film.


    VEDUTA
    Italian for "view". An accurate representation of an urban landscape.


    VEHICLE
    The entire liquid contents of a paint.


    VENICE TURPENTINE
    An oleo resin - the semisolid mixture of a resin and an essential oil - derived from the larch and used primarily in making mediums and diluents for oil painting.


    VERDACCIO
    Old term for green underpainting.


    VOLATILE
    Evaporating rapidly or easily.


    VOLUME
    The space that a object or figure fills in a drawing or painting.

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    W
    WASH
    A thin, usually broadly applied, layer of transparent or heavily diluted paint or ink.


    WATERCOLOR
    A technique of painting using a binder made from a water-soluble gum. Watercolors can be transparent or opaque.


    WATER TENSION BREAKER
    Substance added to water or to water-based paints in order to reduce surface tension. eg. Ox Gall.


    WAX PAINTING
    See Encaustic.


    WAX RESIST
    The use of a waxy medium to make a design over which a colored wash is spread.


    WET ON WET
    The application of fresh paint over an area on which the paint is still wet.


    WETTING AGENT
    See Water Tension Breaker.


    WHITE SPIRITS
    A thinner used with oil paints replacing Turpentine.


    WHITING
    Chalk which is purified, ground with water and dried to form an inert pigment.

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  48. #24
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    X
    XYLOGRAPHY
    Rarely used term for woodblock printing. Also the mechanical reproduction of wood grain for decorative purposes.

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  50. #25
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    Y
    YELLOWING
    This effect on oil paintings is usually caused by one of three reasons: excessive use of linseed oil medium; applying any of the varnishes that are prone to yellow with age; or most often - an accumulation of dirt embedded into the varnish.

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  52. #26
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    ZOOMORPHIC
    Describes the forms of works of art and ornaments based on animal shapes.

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  54. #27
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    Thanks Sepulverture. This really helps me out. I am new here. More power!

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  55. #28
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    Thanks for starting this. I figured you could use some help. Can I add a few words.

    Economy- The colors used in a composition.

    Kraft Paper- Unbleached tonal paper.

    Pick Out- A monochromatic painting technique involving a paper towel and kneaded eraser for lifting tone and highlights.

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  56. #29
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    Hello, what about adding some terms that might be more specific to digital artworks? For example, the word I was hoping to find in this thread: 'Rendering' . Now, I know the dictionary definition of this, but the way a lot of people in this website use it, I get a little unsure if my assumptions are correct.

    SKETCHBOOK
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    Great man!!!! Awesome thread ............. perfect as sticky

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